Proportion refers to the size relationships between different elements in a design.
It is a key principle of graphic design that helps create visual harmony and balance.
Proportion impacts graphic design in several important ways:
- Using different sizes for headlines, subheads, body text, captions etc. creates a clear hierarchy that helps guide the viewer's eye through the design
- Larger, bolder elements draw more attention and are perceived as being more important, while smaller, lighter ones recede into the background
- Strategic use of proportion between headline size, subhead size, and body text size establishes the relative importance of each element
- For example, a large, bold headline at the top of a page will be seen as the main message, with smaller subheads and body text providing supporting details
- Designers think carefully about the desired hierarchy when selecting font sizes for each element
- Balancing large and small shapes and elements creates equilibrium in a composition
- Visual elements don't need to be the same physical size to feel balanced, as long as the proportion or ratio between them feels right
- Skillful use of proportion can create balance between uneven shapes and asymmetrical compositions
- For example, a large image on one side of a page can be balanced by a smaller grouping of text on the other side
- The negative space around elements is also important for creating balance
Guiding the Viewer's Eye
- Proportion is used strategically to draw the viewer's attention towards focal points and areas of emphasis
- Enlarging certain text or graphic elements through proportion draws the eye, while making other areas smaller de-emphasizes them
- These changes in scale create contrast that adds visual energy and dynamism to a design
- Proportion establishes a clear viewing order, guiding the eye from the most important to least important elements
- For example, a dominant headline leads the eye to smaller subheads scattered throughout the composition
- Keeping elements in a design proportional to each other creates cohesion and unity
- For example, uniformity of proportion between social media icons reinforces that they are all part of one systematic design
- Repeating particular proportion relationships between various elements throughout a layout reinforces the overall unity
- At the same time, subtle shifts in proportion also signal important changes and divisions
- For example, an increase in a headline's size signifies added importance of that section
- Scaling up elements draws symbolic meaning to them, while minimizing other parts removes emphasis
- For example, enlarging social media icons at the top of a website communicates their primary importance
- Cropping and enlarging part of an image to focus on a detail gives that area new meaning
- Exaggerated proportion can be used for emphasis, drama, and to communicate meaning non-verbally
- For example, an oversized price in an advertisement communicates "this is a significant discount!"
Proportion is a versatile tool for controlling emphasis and enhancing communication in graphic design.
Skillful use of relative sizes within a composition allows designers to:
- Direct the viewer's eye
- Reinforce hierarchy
- Create balance
- Add meaning
Proportion establishes relationships between elements that influence the overall visual message.