Contrast is one of the most fundamental and impactful principles of graphic design.
Using contrast helps create visual interest, grab the viewer's attention, and make designs stand out.
There are several important types of contrast that designers regularly utilize to make their work more dynamic.
Using colors that are opposites on the color wheel creates maximum visual contrast.
For example, pairing red and green, or yellow and purple.
Complementary colors appear vibrant and energetic when placed next to each other, making each one seem more bold and pronounced.
High contrast color schemes tend to convey excitement, drama, and dynamism.
Low contrast palettes with analogous hues can feel calmer and more subtle.
Color contrast applies not just to hue, but also to saturation and brightness.
A muted pastel yellow will contrast with a highly saturated golden yellow, even though they are similar hues.
Black and white are the ultimate contrasting colors, with the highest value contrast possible.
Value refers to how light or dark a color appears.
Pairing light and dark values together creates strong contrast, regardless of the hues used.
A composition with both dark and light values will have greater visual tension and depth than one that only utilizes light or mid-range tones.
Value contrasts can establish focal points and draw the viewer's eye.
Elements with lighter values will stand out sharply against dark backgrounds.
Using a full range of values is important for adding drama and legibility.
Value contrasts work for any color scheme, not just for complementary color pairs.
Placing large and small visual elements next to each other creates scale contrast.
Varying the scale of different components makes a composition more dynamic.
Using a single large shape against several smaller shapes draws the viewer's focus to that dominant element.
Grouping many tiny details against one large shape can also be impactful.
Mixing and matching big, medium, and small sizes adds visual interest.
Too much uniformity of scale can make a design layout look flat and monotonous.
Strategically sizing objects to be different relative scales activates the space and creates visual tension.
Conceptual contrast relies on juxtaposing opposing ideas, themes, forms, styles, or eras.
For example, mixing round organic shapes with geometric angular ones, or combining handmade with digital.
Using conceptual contrasts allows designers to communicate ideas in engaging ways.
Contrasting old and new can convey a sense of nostalgia paired with modernity.
Combining textures, like matte vs. glossy finishes, or smooth vs. rough, adds another layer of visual interest through contrast.
The key is finding conceptual contrasts that enhance the underlying message and mood.
Thoughtfully using contrast helps direct the viewer's eye, communicate ideas, and make graphic design work more visually engaging.
Designers should carefully consider how to leverage contrast across colors, values, scales, concepts and styles to strengthen their designs.
The most skillful graphic design artfully balances contrasts to create appealing compositions full of visual tension and interest.