Modernism was an artistic and cultural movement that emerged in the early 20th century.
And had a major impact on graphic design.
Some key features of modernist graphic design include:
Simplicity and Minimalism
- Modernist designers fully embraced the principle of "less is more" and rejected ornamentation and clutter. Their designs featured clean lines, plenty of white space, and minimal adornment.
- Typography was simplified without serifs or stylistic embellishments. Modernist designers favored simple sans-serif typefaces like Futura and Helvetica. Headlines and text were often set in bold blocks of black against white backgrounds.
- Layouts avoided decorative borders, illustrations, and other complex decorative elements. Instead they relied on the graphical impact of shape, line, and blocks of color.
- The covers of modernist publications like the Bauhaus books and De Stijl magazines demonstrated this stripped down aesthetic with bold abstract shapes on white backgrounds.
Form Follows Function
- Modernist designers firmly believed that design elements should be determined by their functionality rather than just their visual appearance.
- Typography and layouts were crafted with utmost attention to their practical use and purpose. For example, text would be sized for optimal readability.
- Purely decorative elements were eliminated in favor of functional ones that served the objectives of the design. This represented a departure from the excess ornamentation of previous eras.
- Herbert Bayer's 1925 design for the Bauhaus exhibition poster is an example of reduced form following function. The typography is bold and readable. The shapes and lines clearly denote the location.
- Modernist graphic design moved decisively away from literal representation and realism towards abstraction as way to communicate meaning.
- Designers made powerful use of shape, color, layout, and typography in abstract ways to represent ideas and create visual metaphors.
- Photomontage, which combines abstract cut-out photographs and text, was commonly used in posters and publications. It was a way to juxtapose ideas and symbolism.
- Abstract and conceptual typography was also prevalent. Letterforms were used expressively as shapes and patterns. Examples include Herbert Bayer's kinetic APG typography.
Geometric Shapes and Lines
- Strong geometric forms were dominant graphic elements in modernist design. Circles, squares, rectangles, and triangles recurred frequently.
- Layouts were structured around dynamic diagonal lines, bold verticals, and horizontals that conveyed an orderly, architectural look and feel.
- Grid-based layouts with prominent lines and shapes provided strong visual structure and organization rather than a naturalistic or decorative look.
- See L�szl� Moholy-Nagy's posters and El Lissitzky's abstract compositions based on circles, lines and color.
Asymmetric and Unconventional Layouts
- Modernist designers broke decisively from symmetry and more formal layout rules of previous eras.
- Asymmetric, dynamic, and expressive arrangements were favored instead. Text and images were positioned and angled in unusual yet functional ways.
- Diagonals, close-ups, and varying scales gave layouts a vitality not seen in more static, symmetrical designs.
- Georg Olden's CBS logo and Alex Steinweiss's record covers featured very innovative asymmetric layouts.
Bold Colors and Contrast
- The modernists embraced vibrant colors and high contrast between elements to create points of focus and visual impact.
- Rich hues like reds, yellows, and blues highlighted important design elements like headlines and shapes against white space.
- Heavy black lines also separated content, created boundaries, and enabled parts of the composition to stand out.
- See Piet Zwart's NRCA packaging and Paul Rand's directional signage and posters which use color, contrast, and scale for emphasis.
Modernist graphic design represented a revolutionary shift towards simplicity, abstraction, functionality, and unconventional visual expression.
Its aesthetic principles and ideas still influence graphic design in the 21st century.